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Second Arenberg Conference on History

Sound Toll Registers online
early modern trade and transport


Thursday 25 October – Friday 26 October 2012
University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
room A901, Broerstraat 9, Groningen, next door to the Academy Building

registration before 15 October 2012 via:
official language: English
limited seat capacity, no fee
non-speakers attending the conference dinner are requested to contribute € 35.

The University of Groningen and Tresoar, the Frisian Historical and Literary Centre at Leeuwarden are building an electronic database for the Sound Toll Registers (STR), dubbed Sound Toll Registers online, short: STRO. We carry out this project in close co-operation with Rigsarkivet, the Danish State Archive in Copenhagen which keeps the more than 700 original, handwritten volumes of the STR. The data input is outsourced to Breed, the Social Workplace at Nijmegen. The database is freely accessible by everybody via the internet: We encourage the use of STRO as a research instrument.
The STR are one of the main sources for the economic and maritime history of Europe. They are the records of the toll the king of Denmark levied on the passage of ships through the Sound, the strait between Denmark and Sweden linking the North Sea and the Baltic. They have been preserved for about 300 of the 360 years from 1497 till 1857 and include a practically uninterrupted series from 1574 to 1857. The STR contain information on about 1.8 million passages.

This conference is financially supported by the Arenberg Foundation and the Samenwerkende Maritieme Fondsen.


Thursday 25 October 2012
chair: Jan Willem Veluwenkamp (Groningen)

9:30-9:50 coffee
09.55-10.00 Michael Serruys, (Enghien, Belgium) Welcome on behalf of the Arenberg Foundation
10:05-10.15 Siem van de Woude (Leeuwarden, The Netherlands) STR-online: harvest in full swing
10:20-10:55 Werner Scheltjens (Groningen, The Netherlands) Papenburg in the Duchy of Arenberg
1803-1810: the first virtual community?
11:00-11:35 Magnus Andersson (Gothenburg, Sweden) Ship movements as a measure of trade –
a comparison of Sound toll register (STR) and additional Custom account from Gothenburg 1760−1765
11:40-12:15 Jelle Jan Koopmans (Groningen, The Netherlands) Kingma Makkum: A shipmasters
company in the early modern period
12:30-13:15 lunch, Bruinszaal, Academy Building, Broerstraat 5
13:30-14:30 excursion Martinikerk, Martinikerkhof 3 (
15:00-15:35 Katerina Galani (Corfu, Greece) From the Sound Toll to the Mediterranean Seas: Ships, trade and maritime businesses before and after the Napoleonic Wars
15:40-16:15 Riika Alvik (Helsinki, Finland) Dutch merchant ships in the Gulf of
Finland: Case studies "St. Michel" and "Vrouw Maria”
16:20-16:55 Jari Ojala (Jyvaskyla, Finland) Assessing the Reliability of the Sound Toll Accounts:
Comparing the Data to other Sources
18:00-19:15 meeting place: Café de Sleutel, Noorderhaven 72 (
19:15 dinner: de Sleutel

Friday 26 October 2012
Chair: George Welling (Groningen)

9:00-9:30 coffee
09:30-10:05 Simone Steenbeek (Groningen, The Netherlands) Frisian shipmaster communities and
 the Dutch market for maritime transport, 1600-1800. The cases of Harlingen and Woudsend
10:10-10:45 Magnus Ressel (Bochum, Duitsland) The impact of the partitions of Poland upon the
trade structure from and to the Baltic ports (1772-1806)
11:00-12:00 excursion Provinciehuis (Martinikerkhof 12)
12:30-13.15 lunch, Engelse zaal, Academy Building, Broerstraat 5
13:30-14:05 Hanno Brand (Leeuwarden, The Netherlands) Frisian skippers as carriers of colonial
commodities (ca. 1720-1780)
14:10-14:45 Maarten Draper and Jerem van Duijl (Groningen, The Netherlands) The decline of the
participation of Dutch Wadden Islands shipmasters in Baltic shipping 1740-1790
14:50-15:25 Jeroen van der Vliet (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) Watching the ships sail in. Linking
shipping data from Amsterdam and the Baltic revisited

STR online has been made possible by subsidies granted by:
Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (, Fonds Woudsend 1816,
Stichting de Grote Zuidwesthoek, Kingma Stichting, The University of Groningen (, Tresoar (, SNS REAAL Fonds (,
Directie der Oostersche Handel en Reederijen, Stichting Admiraal van Kinsbergenfonds,
Stichting Vaderlandsch Fonds ter Aanmoediging van ’s-Lands Zeedienst,
Stichting Ondersteuningsfonds Nationaal Instituut voor de Scheepvaart en Scheepsbouw (,
Vereeniging “De Prins Hendrik Stichting” sedert 1874.